Black holes are at the core of almost every galaxy. Scientists believed that the presence of these initially very bright objects could be traced back to the beginning of the Universe.
But in order to create a galaxy, black holes must reach the supermassive stage. This requires an extended period of time, which at this point does not fit the timing scientists have for the creation of galaxies.
Thus, new studies have been conducted to find new ways of how a black hole can reach the supermassive stage without taking into consideration the natural aging process.
A team of researchers has set up a new model which involves gas collapse inside the black hole. This process may trigger the supermassive stage much faster than the formation of a star might have.
In comparison with our Sun, a star needed to create a black hole must have a mass dozens of times larger. After the collapse of the star, the newly created black hole has a mass few times bigger than the original star. This adds up to an impressive weight.
But the actual supermassive black hole is up to a billion times larger than our Sun.
These conditions are hard to be met by present presumptions on how a supermassive black hole is created. Even if the progressive accumulation of mass is possible, the process may take a lot more time than the scientists believe it was needed to form galaxies.
This theory is still raising questions because the more matter enters the black hole, the more radiation it emits. Radiation makes the matter close-by to the galaxy to move further away. Thus, the probability of growth in mass is not very high.
As data from an early Universe was difficult to find, all these theories and model simulations have not advanced much towards discovering how galaxies are created.
The new paradigm changes the presumptions of old studies and takes into account the possibility of a cloud of gas collapsing under the pressure of its own weight. Gas can directly enter the black hole without being stopped by radiation. Once inside, the gas can produce growth in mass.
No direct observations have been made on this process.
However, the team involved in this study has concluded that the proof for this dynamic may be found in the infrared spectrum and its redder area. Thus, they set up a search for objects associated with high energetic events.
The search ended up with finding two objects that respect the conditions. As the former models of explanation do not apply to them, scientists now think they are black holes created by direct collapse.
Space observations will prove whether or not this theory is correct. NASA is preparing to launch a new telescope, called James Webb, which may shed some light on the early eras of the Universe.
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