Diabetes is a disease that signals a malfunction in glucose assimilation. Glucose is contained in rice, flour products, or yam, and it is the fundamental element in sugar.
The glucose load in the gut creates an insulin response in the pancreas. The insulin helps glucose absorption so that it could later get into cells and participate in energy production.
By improving absorption, the insulin can contribute to lower the sugar level in the blood.
In case the glucose is not used by the cells when the cells are inactive, the substance is transformed into fat. The hormone responsible for changing glucose into fat is called glucagon.
There are two types of diabetes. One involves the pancreas not creating enough insulin (type I), and the other occurs when the body rejects the action of insulin (type II).
Type II diabetes is the most common one. Experts believe that it is caused by mistakes in lifestyle, such as inactivity and a diet based on carbohydrates. The body starts to contain a lot more insulin than it could assimilate, the glucagon intervenes, and it transforms the glucose into fat.
On the other hand, the fat leads to insulin resistance. The mid-section fat proved to be the most dangerous for creating resistance.
Diabetes is also a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is one of the mortality causes in people that have diabetes. The reason is that hypertension, the abnormal quantity of lipids in blood and obesity are all factors that influence the apparition of cardiovascular disease.
The damage done by uncontrolled diabetes to blood vessels can also make people more vulnerable to hypertension and atherosclerosis. Moreover, atherosclerosis developed by the individuals with diabetes appears at a younger age and is more severe than the regular one.
Almost 50% of the people with the disease also have hypertension. They are also more prone to heart attacks and strokes, and their prognosis is usually worse.
The most worrying aspect is that a person with diabetes can have a “silent” heart attack, with no chest pains, as the diabetes damages nerves and blood vessels and impairs the usual symptoms of a heart attack.
Women that have not reached menopause have a higher risk of heart disease because the effects of estrogen are annulled by the underlying illness.
People that have both the disease and hypertension are twice more likely to have a stroke.
The damage done by the illness to blood vessels brings along a higher risk of intermittent claudication and amputation of the lower limbs.
A person that has diabetes must control the blood glucose levels, which could reduce the risks of cardiovascular death by 57%. The blood lipids control can reduce complications to up to 50%.
A healthy diet and losing weight can make the condition manageable. Quitting smoking is also a decisive factor in improving the general health status.
Age, ethnicity, family history, obesity are all factors that can influence type II diabetes. The factors affecting type I diabetes are less known, but they probably involve toxins, dietary components or viruses.
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